Medical

Medical Sector

Radiation: Danger, Safety and Diseases
Level 1

Radiation: Danger, Safety and Diseases
Level 1

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Definition of radiation
  • 1.2. Types of radiation
  • 1.3. Background radiation
  • 1.4. Nuclear power
  • 1.5. History of nuclear power plants; Accidents and safety
  • 2. Means of exposure
  • 2.1. Radiation exposure
  • 2.2. Radioactive contamination
  • 2.3. Irradiation vs contamination
  • 2.4. Radiation monitoring; Radiation doses considered to be safe; Personnel protection
  • 3. Medical aspects
  • 3.1. Major medical issues+radiation emergencies
  • 3.2. Initial lab Tests
  • 3.3. Acute radiation syndrome
  • 3.4. Cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)
  • 3.5. Medical management of internal contamination
  • 3.6. KI Blockage of Thyroid
  • 3.7. Stochastic effects
  • 3.8. Decontamination
  • 3.9. Psychological support and risk
  • 3.9.1. Immediate pshychological effects
  • 3.9.2. Long-term pshychological effects
  • 4. Medical countermeasures
  • 5. Appendix
  • 6. Bibliography




 


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Medical Sector

Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. History of antibiotic
  • 3. The evolution of antibiotic resistance
  • 4. Antibiotic
  • 5. Classification of antibiotic
  • 6. Classification of bacteria
  • 7. Antibiotic resistance
  • 8. Brief Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance
  • 9. Different antibiotic resistant bacteria
  • 10. Genetics of resistance
  • 11. Ecological roles of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance
  • 12. Non genetic basis of resistance
  • 13. The Biological Side of Resistance
  • 14. The Pharmacological Side of Resistance
  • 15. The Biological Consequences of Resistance
  • 16. The Clinical Consequences of Resistance
  • 17. Cause of antimicrobial resistance
  • 18. Antibiotic resistance in different regions of the world
  • 19. Present situation of Resistance of different bacteria
  • 20. Prevention of antibiotic resistance
  • 21. The future for antibiotics and antibiotic resistance
  • 22. Conclusion




 


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Medical Sector

Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy

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  • 1.Introduction
  • 2.The heart
  • 3.Cardiomyopathy
  • 4.Major Risk factors of cardiomyopathy
  • 5.Types of cardiomyopathy
  • 6.Epidemiology
  • 7.Dilated cardiomyopathy:
  • 7.1 Pathogenesis
  • 7.2 Morphologic features
  • 7.3 Clinical features
  • 7.4 Investigations
  • 7.5 Treatment
  • 7.6 Prognosis
  • 8.Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
  • 9.Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
  • 9.1 Pathogenesis
  • 9.2 Morphologic features
  • 9.3 Clinical features
  • 9.4 Investigations
  • 9.5 Treatment
  • 9.6 Differential diagnosis
  • 10.Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • 10.1 Pathogenesis
  • 10.2 Morphologic features
  • 10.3 Clinical features
  • 10.4 Investigations
  • 10.5 Treatment
  • 10.6 Complications
  • 10.7 Diagnostic considerations
  • 10.8 Differential diagnosis
  • 11. Obliterative cardiomyopathy
  • 12. Prevention of cardiomyopathy
  • 13. Summery




 


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Medical Sector

Denque fever

Denque fever

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ebola History
  • 2.1. Etymology
  • 2.2. Emergence
  • 2.3. Recent Cases
  • 3. Virology
  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2. Structure of Virion
  • 3.3. Genome
  • 3.4. Gene Expression
  • 3.5. Entry
  • 3.6. Replication
  • 4. Pathophysiology
  • 5. Immune Response to Dengue Virus
  • 6. Taxonomy
  • 7. Dengue classification
  • 8. Dengue virus Electron Micrographs
  • 9. Histologic findings
  • 10. Transmission
  • 11. Risk Factors
  • 12. Sign & Symptoms
  • 13. Diagnosis
  • 14. Differential Diagnosis
  • 15. Dengue Management
  • 16. Prognosis
  • 17. Prevention & Control
  • 18. Vaccine for Dengue
  • 19. Epidemiology
  • 20. Outbreaks
  • 21. Recent research and current focus
  • 22. Conclusion




 


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Depression

Depression

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Ethological Considerations (ref 1,2)




 


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Medical Sector

Ebola

Ebola

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ebola Etymology
  • 3. Ebola History
  • 3.1. Emergence
  • 3.2. Recent Cases
  • 4. Virology
  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Structure of Virion
  • 4.3. Genome
  • 4.4. Gene Expression
  • 4.5. Entry
  • 4.6. Replication
  • 5. Pathophysiology
  • 6. Immune Response to Ebola Virus
  • 7. Taxonomy
  • 8. Ebola Classification
  • 8.1. Zaire Ebolavirus
  • 8.2. Sudan Ebolavirus
  • 8.3. Reston Ebolavirus
  • 8.5. Bundibugyo Ebolavirus
  • 9. Ebola Electron Micrographs
  • 10. Histologic findings
  • 11. Transmission
  • 12. Risk Factors
  • 13. Sign & Symptoms
  • 14. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever
  • 15. Diagnosis
  • 16. Diagnostic Considerations
  • 17. Differential Diagnosis
  • 18. Ebola Management
  • 19. Experimental Therapies
  • 20. Prognosis
  • 21. Natural Host of Ebola Virus
  • 22. Ebola Virus in Animals
  • 23. Prevention & Control
  • 24. Vaccine for Ebola
  • 25. Epidemiology
  • 26. Major Outbreaks
  • 26.1. 2007 to 2011
  • 26.2. 2012
  • 26.3. 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak
  • 27. Demographics
  • 27.1. Age-related demographics
  • 27.2. Sex-related demographics
  • 27.3. Race-related demographics
  • 28. Recent research and current focus




 


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Medical Sector

Gastric carcinoma

Gastric carcinoma

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. The History of Gastric Carcinoma
  • 3. The Human Stomach
  • 3.1 Structure
  • 3.2 Blood supply
  • 3.3 Histology
  • 3.4 Functions
  • 4. Gastric Carcinoma
  • 5. Causes and risk factors
  • 6. Signs and symptoms
  • 7. Diagnosis
  • 8. Grading and classification
  • 9. Stages of stomach cancer
  • 10. Spread of stomach cancer
  • 11. Prognosis
  • 12. Management
  • 13. Follow up after treatment
  • 14. Supportive care
  • 15. Epidemiology
  • 16. Research and development
  • 17. Summary




 


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Medical Sector

Hallitosis

Hallitosis

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Definition, causes, classification
  • 2.1. Definition
  • 2.2. Causes
  • 2.2.1. Oral and dental causes
  • 2.2.2. Medical causes
  • 2.3. Classification
  • 3. Diagnosis
  • 3.1. Self-diagnosis
  • 3.2. Professional diagnosis
  • 4. Treatment
  • 4.1. Dental Hygiene
  • 4.2. Antimicrobial Mouthwashes
  • 4.3. Periodontal Treatment
  • 4.4. Food and Water
  • 4.5. Medication
  • 4.6. Home remedies
  • 6. Social impact




 


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Medical Sector

Hepatitis

Hepatitis

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Structure of liver
  • 3. Hepatitis
  • 4. Causes of hepatitis
  • 5. Viral Hepatitis
  • 6. Acute versus chronic viral hepatitis
  • 7. Hepatitis in pregnancy
  • 8. Epidemiology
  • 9. Brief about Hepatitis A
  • 10. Brief about Hepatitis B
  • 11. Brief about Hepatitis C
  • 12. Brief about Hepatitis D
  • 13. Brief about Hepatitis E
  • 14. Brief about Hepatitis G
  • 15. Alcoholic Hepatitis
  • 16. Drug induced hepatitis
  • 17. Autoimmune hepatitis
  • 18. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
  • 19. Neonatal hepatitis
  • 20. Ischemic hepatitis
  • 21. Conclusion




 


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Medical Sector

Hyperlipidemie

Hyperlipidemie

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Definition
  • 1.2. Description
  • 2. Classification
  • 3. Causes and risk factors
  • 3.1. Genetic causes
  • 3.2. Lifestyle causes
  • 3.2.1. Obesity
  • 3.2.2. Lack of exercise
  • 3.3. Risk factors
  • 4. Symptoms and tests
  • 4.1. Symptoms
  • 4.2. Tests
  • 5. Classification of lipid
  • 5.1. Classes of lipoprotein
  • 5.2. Lipid concentration
  • 6. Complication
  • 7. Treatment and therapy
  • 7.1. Statins
  • 7.1.1. Atorvastatin
  • 7.1.2. Fluvastatin
  • 7.1.3. Rosuvastatin
  • 7.1.4. Simvastatin




 


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Medical Sector

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Crohn’s disease
  • 2.1. Definition and classification
  • 2.2. Causes, signs and symptoms
  • 2.3. Diagnosis and tests
  • 2.4. Treatment
  • 3. Ulcerative colitis
  • 3.1. Definition and causes
  • 3.2. Classification and symptoms
  • 3.3. Diagnosis and tests
  • 3.4. Treatment




 


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Medical Sector

Malnutrition

Malnutrition

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Causes and Effects
  • 2.1. Causes
  • 2.2. Effects
  • 3. Symptoms and diagnosis
  • 3.1. Definition and symptoms of marasmus
  • 3.2. Definition and symptoms of kwashiorkor
  • 3.3. Diagnosis
  • 4. Treatment
  • 4.1. Treatment at home
  • 4.2. Treatment in hospital
  • 4.3. Treatment of marasmus
  • 4.4. Treatment of kwashiorkor




 


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Medical Sector

Meningitis

Meningitis

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. History
  • 2.1. History of meningitis
  • 2.2. History of organism causing meningitis
  • 2.3. History of clinical features of meningitis
  • 2.4. History of vaccine
  • 2.5. History of antibiotic
  • 2.6. Other advances in the treatment of meningitis
  • 3. Anatomy of meninges
  • 3.1. Meninges of brain
  • 3.1.1. Dural matter
  • 3.1.2. Dural nerve supply
  • 3.1.3. Dural arterial supply
  • 3.1.4. Dural venous sinuses
  • 3.1.5. Arachnoid Mater
  • 3.1.6. Pia mater
  • 3.2. Meninges of spinal cord
  • 3.2.1. Dura matter
  • 3.2.2. Arachonoid matter
  • 3.2.3. Pia matter
  • 4. Causes of meningitis
  • 4.1. Infective cause
  • 4.2. Non-infective cause
  • 5. Epidemiology of meningitis
  • 5.1. Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis
  • 5.2. Epidemiology of specific bacterial pathogens of acute meningitis
  • 5.3. Epidemiology of asceptic meningitis
  • 5.4. Epidemiology of chronic meningitis
  • 6. Pathophysiology
  • 6.1. Intracranial pressure and cerebral fluid
  • 6.2. Cerebral oedema
  • 6.3. Cytokines and secondary mediators in bacterial meningitis
  • 6.4. Genetic predisposition to inflammatory response
  • 6.5. Bacterial seedling
  • 7.Risk factors of meningitis
  • 8. Presentation of meningitis
  • 8.1. Symptoms
  • 8.2. Physical presentation
  • 8.3. Presentation of meningitis in Infants
  • 8.4. Focal neurological sign
  • 8.5. Signs of meningeal irritation
  • 8.6. Systemic and extracranial findings
  • 9. Chronic meningitis
  • 10. Tuberculous meningitis
  • 10.1. Pathophysiology
  • 10.2. Clinical features
  • 10.2.1. Symptoms
  • 10.2.2. Signs
  • 10.3. Clinical staging
  • 11. Syphilitic meningitis
  • 11.1. Incubation period
  • 11.2. Presentation
  • 12. Lyme meningitis
  • 13. Fungal meningitis
  • 14. Helminthic eosinophilic meningitis
  • 15. Aseptic meningitis
  • 16. Complications
  • 16.1. Immediate complications
  • 16.2. Delayed complications
  • 16.3. Cerebral edema,cranial nerve palsy, and cerebral infarction
  • 16.4. Brain parenchymal damage
  • 16.5. Cerebritis
  • 16.6. Subdural effusion
  • 16.7. Ventriculitis
  • 16.8. Ventriculomegaly
  • 17. Differential Diagnoses
  • 18. Investigations
  • 18.1. Basic rule of investigating meningitis
  • 18.2. Blood Studies
  • 18.3. Cultures and Bacterial Antigen Testing
  • 18.4. Serum Procalcitonin Testing
  • 18.5. Lumbar Puncture and CSF Analysis
  • 18.6. CFS sample handling
  • 18.7. CSF characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis
  • 18.8. CSF characteristics of viral meningitis
  • 18.9. CSF characteristics of fungal meningitis
  • 18.10. CSF characteristics of eosinophilic/parasitic meningitis
  • 18.11. CSF characteristics of Lyme meningitis
  • 18.12. CSF characteristics of tuberculous meningitis
  • 18.13. CSF glucose and protein
  • 18.14. CSF Gram stain and acid-fast bacillus stain
  • 18.15. CSF culture and antigen testing
  • 18.16. Cryptococcal meningitis
  • 18.17. Syphilitic meningitis
  • 18.18. Lyme meningitis
  • 18.19. Tuberculous meningitis
  • 18.20. Viral isolation from CSF
  • 18.21. Neuroimaging
  • 19. Treatment
  • 19.1. Treatment of Viral Meningitis
  • 19.2. Herpes simplex meningitis:
  • 19.3. Cytomegalovirus meningitis
  • 19.4. Treatment of Fungal Meningitis
  • 19.4.a. Cryptococcal meningitis
  • 19.4.b. Coccidioides immitis
  • 19.4.c. Histoplasma capsulatum
  • 19.4.d. Candida species
  • 19.4.e. Sporothrix schenckii
  • 19.5. Treatment of Tuberculous Meningitis
  • 19.6. Treatment of Syphilitic Meningitis
  • 19.7. Treatment of Parasitic Meningitis
  • 19.8. Treatment of Lyme Meningitis
  • 20. Treatment of complications
  • 21. Prevention of meningococcal infection
  • 21.1. H influenzae vaccine
  • 21.2. N meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 vaccine
  • 21.3. N meningitidis serogroup B vaccine
  • 21.4. Pneumococcal vaccine
  • 22. Chemoprophylaxis following meningococcal exposure:
  • 22.1. Close contacts warranting chemoprophylaxis
  • 22.2. Persons at low risk in whom chemoprophylaxis is not recommended
  • 22. Long term monitoring
  • 23. Conclusion
  • 24. References




 


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Medical Sector

MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome)

MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome)

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Etiology
  • 3. Virology
  • 4. Corona virus
  • 5. Epidemiology
  • 6. Pathophysiology
  • 7. Signs and symptoms
  • 8. Differential diagnosis
  • 9. Diagnosis
  • 10. Case identification
  • 11. Treatment
  • 12. Prevention
  • 13. Prognosis
  • 14. Recent research
  • 15. MERS outbreak update
  • 16. Conclusion




 


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Medical Sector

Nutrition

Nutrition

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Histroy
  • 2.1. The Bible, Book of Daniel
  • 2.2. Hippocrates (Greece, ca460BC - ca370BC), one nutrient theory
  • 2.3. Antoine Lavoisier (France, 1743-1794)
  • 2.4. Christiaan Eijkman (Holland, 1858-1930)
  • 2.5. Dr. James Lind (Scotland, 1716-1794)
  • 2.6. Dr. William Beaumont (USA, 1785-1853)
  • 2.7. Dr. Stephen Babcock (USA, 1843-1931)
  • 2.8. Kazimierz Funk (Poland, 1884- 1967)
  • 2.9. Some other famous people in the history of nutrition
  • 3. Types of nutrition
  • 3.1. Carbohydrate
  • 3.2. Protein
  • 3.3. Fat
  • 3.4. Dietary fibers
  • 3.5. Minerals
  • 3.6. Water
  • 3.7. Vitamins
  • 3.8. Trace minerals
  • 3.9. Organic acids
  • 4. Carbohydrate
  • 4.1. Sources of carbohydrate
  • 4.2. Functions
  • 4.3. Classification of carbohydrate
  • 4.4. Requirements for carbohydrate
  • 4.5. Carbohydrate deficiency diseases
  • 4.6. The causes of carbohydrate deficiency diseases
  • 4.7. How does carbohydrate deficiency occur?
  • 4.8. Disorder of carbohydrate metabolism
  • 4.9. Symptoms and manifestations of carbohydrate deficiency
  • 4.10. Diagnosis and treatment of inherited carbohydrate metabolism disorder
  • 5. Protein
  • 5.1. Functions of protein
  • 5.2. Elemental composition of protein
  • 5.3. Classification of protein
  • 5.4. Classification of amino acids
  • 5.5. Protein deficiency diseases
  • 5.5.1. Marasmus
  • 5.5.2. Kwashiorkor
  • 5.5.3. Protein C deficiency
  • 5.5.4. Protein S deficiency
  • 6. Fat/Lipid
  • 6.1. Functions of lipid
  • 6.2. Classification of lipid
  • 6.3. Disorder of lipid metabolism
  • 6.4. Pathophysiology
  • 6.5. Epidemiology
  • 6.6. Causes
  • 6.7. Symptoms
  • 6.8. Differential diagnosis
  • 6.9. Investigations
  • 6.10. Treatment
  • 6.11. List of drugs that can be used in lipid storage disorders
  • 7. Minerals
  • 7.1. Sodium
  • 7.2. Chloride
  • 7.3. Potassium
  • 7.4. Calcium
  • 7.5. Magnesium
  • 7.6. Phosphorus
  • 7.7. Iron
  • 7.8. Iodine
  • 7.9. Fluorine
  • 7.10. Zinc
  • 8. Vitamins
  • 8.1. Fat soluble vitamin
  • 8.1.1. Vitamin A
  • 8.1.2. Vitamin D
  • 8.1.3. Vitamin E
  • 8.1.4. Vitamin K
  • 8.2. Water soluble vitamin
  • 8.2.1. Vitamin B complex
  • 8.2.2. Vitamin C
  • 9. Dietary fiber
  • 9.1. Plant sources of fiber
  • 9.2. RDA
  • 9.3. Benefits of Dietary fiber
  • 9.4. Deficiency of dietary fiber
  • 9.5. Mechanism of action
  • 9.6. Physicochemical properties
  • 10. Water
  • 10.1. Functions
  • 10.2. Daily requirement
  • 11. Conclusion




 


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Medical Sector

Radiation: Danger, Safety and Diseases
Level 2

Radiation: Danger, Safety and Diseases
Level 2

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 1.1. Definition of radiation
  • 1.2. Types of radiation
  • 1.3. Background radiation
  • 1.4. Nuclear power
  • 1.5. History of nuclear power plants; Accidents and safety
  • 2. Means of exposure
  • 2.1. Radiation exposure
  • 2.2. Radioactive contamination
  • 2.3. Irradiation vs contamination
  • 2.4. Radiation monitoring; Radiation doses considered to be safe; Personnel protection
  • 3. Medical aspects
  • 3.1. Major medical issues+radiation emergencies
  • 3.2. Initial lab Tests
  • 3.3. Acute radiation syndrome
  • 3.4. Cutaneous radiation syndrome (CRS)
  • 3.5. Medical management of internal contamination
  • 3.6. KI Blockage of Thyroid
  • 3.7. Stochastic effects
  • 3.8. Decontamination
  • 3.9. Psychological support and risk
  • 3.9.1. Immediate pshychological effects
  • 3.9.2. Long-term pshychological effects
  • 4. Medical countermeasures
  • 5. Appendix
  • 6. Bibliography




 


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Medical Sector

Tropical disease

Tropical disease

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. African trypanosomiasis
  • 2.1. Definition, signs and symptoms
  • 2.2. Life cycle
  • 2.3. Treatment
  • 3. Chagas disease
  • 3.1. Definition, signs and symptoms
  • 3.2. Life cycle
  • 3.3. Treatment
  • 4. Malaria
  • 4.1. Definition, signs and symptoms
  • 4.2. Life cycle
  • 4.3. Treatment
  • 5. Leprosy
  • 5.1. Definition and symptoms
  • 5.2. Pathophysiology
  • 5.3. Treatment
  • 6. Lymphatic filariasis
  • 6.1. Definition, signs and symptoms
  • 6.2. Life cycle
  • 6.3. Treatment




 


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Medical Sector

Zika Virus

Zika Virus

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  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. History of Zika virus
  • 3. Virology
  • 4. Structure
  • 5. Reproductive Cycle of a Zika virus in a Host Cell
  • 6. Transmission
  • 7. Symptoms of Zika virus
  • 8. Diagnosis
  • 9. Treatment
  • 10. Prevention
  • 11. WHO response
  • 12. Zika virus-WHO declares global public health emergency
  • 13. Zika and pregnancy- Raising questions and answers
  • 14. Zika virus and breastfeeding
  • 15. What are Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya?
  • 16. Guillain-Barré syndrome and Zika virus
  • 17. Research on Zika virus
  • 18. Conclusion
  • 19. References




 


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